Confined Spaces

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Confined Space—the final frontier. These are the voyages of a maintenance worker. Their daily mission: to repair dangerously positioned equipment; to seek out new problems and repair them; to boldly go where no one has gone before—safely.

Confined space accidents injure or take the lives of thousands of workers each year. Silos, ceilings, vaults, tanks and other vessels present specific hazards to workers. These hazards must be recognized, mitigated and/or eliminated. It's not just the right thing to do, it's also the law.

You can view our article on Confined Space Safety in Power Magazine.

Discount pricing available! For more than ten users, please contact New Standard Institute by using the Contact Us form for multiple user discounts.

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  • What is a Confined Space?
    • Limited Entry/Egress
    • Continuous Human Occupancy
  • Types of Confined Spaces
  • Training
  • Assessing Hazards

Atmospheric Hazards

  • Atmospheric Measurement
    • Oxygen (O2)
    • Oxygen Enrichment
    • Asphyxiants
    • Flammability
    • Volatile Fumes
  • Toxic Gases
    • Carbon Monoxide
    • Hydrogen Sulfide
    • Ammonia & Chlorine
    • Pooled Gas

Other Hazards

  • Electrical Hazards
  • Hydraulics
  • Lines and Piping
  • Chemical and Process Safety
  • Engulfment

Preparing for Entry

  • Types of Confined Spaces
  • Non-Permit Entry Spaces
    • Example of Safe Entry
  • Beginning a Permit Entry
  • Pre-Entry
  • Alerting
  • Barricades and Protection
  • Acceptable Entry Conditions
  • Preparing for Entry
    • Temporary Non-Permit Designation

Atmospheric Conditions / Protection

  • General Ventilation
  • Natural Ventilation
  • Mechanical Ventilation
  • Ventilation Problems
  • Removing Flammable Atmospheres
  • Positive & Negative Pressure Ventilation
  • Point Source Contamination
  • Testing the Air
  • Preparing to Test
  • Testing Procedure
  • Stratified Atmosphere
  • Testing During Entry
  • SCBA & Respiratory
  • Personal Protection
    • Face pieces
    • Air-Purifying Respirators
    • Supplied Air
    • SCBA

Other Conditions / Protection

  • Fluid/Gas Isolation
  • Electrical Isolation
  • Mechanical Energy
  • Pressure Driven Systems
  • Purging and Flushing
  • Harnesses & Fall Protection
  • Protective Clothing
  • Temperature Hazards
  • Welding & Hot Work
  • Elimination of Hazards

Managerial Roles

  • The Entry Supervisor
  • The Attendant
  • Communication


  • Self-Rescue
  • Non-Entry Rescue
  • Rescue Services
  • Overall Safety